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Psychiatric Diagnoses for Hikikomori (This study is conducted as a part from WMH), ひきこもりの精神障害

A follow-up survey for respondents who answered that they had experienced hikikomori (originally from the WMH(2003).

Conclusion from this data このデータの結論:
Hikikomori is not necessarily accompanied by mental disorders. In this data, the diagnoses given during hikikomori are anxiety disorders and depression, and there are circumstances in which it is accompanied by phobias. However, hikikomori cannot be explained just by these mental disorders.
Among the respondents who answered that they had experienced hikikomori, 5 out of 14 respondents (36%) were not diagnosed with a mental disorder. It is often said that hikikomori is classified as either a social-anxiety disorder or depression, but this opinion was denied in this investigation.
Additionally, 36% of respondents in the study were given a psychiatric diagnoses, as indicated below.
Age Distributions of Children Showing Hikikomori Symptoms
Number of individuals
social phobia(social anxiety disorder) 社交恐怖(社交不安障害) 2
major depression 大うつ病
moderate depression 中等度のうつ病 1
generalized anxiety disorder 全般性不安障害 1

Further, although the life span diagnostics is known for social anxiety disorders, there were individual cases in this study in which: mental disorder symptoms were not reported during their years of hikikomori (1 respondent), the relationship between dysthymic disorder and hikikomori was unknown (1 respondent), and absolutely no psychiatric diagnoses were given (5 respondents).
また社交不安障害の生涯診断はついているものの、ひきこもりであった年齢時には症状がなかったものが1人,気分変調性障害があるがひきこもりとの 関連が不明のもの1人,まったく精神障害診断のないものが5人であった。

It should be noted that a psychiatric diagnosis does not necessarily imply that an individual is not hikikomori. It is a common pattern to develop depression and other mental disorders after becoming hikikomori or futoko (school refusal). Further, there are cases in which individuals develop a variety of psychiatric disorders even after breaking out of their hikikomori behavior.
This is a pattern in which an individual who is not confident with social lifestyles re-enters a stressful society, which creates psychological burdens, leading to their development of mental disorders. There was one respondent who exhibited this pattern in this survey.
Further, it is also common for hikikomori and psychiatric disorders to occur concurrently. There are many cases in which it is not possible to determine whether psychiatric disorders have caused hikikomori, or whether hikikomori has caused the psychiatric disorders.
The following consideration is given in this investigation:
It is evident through conducting structured diagnostic interviews, that there are hikikomori individuals whose diagnoses cannot be determined as exclusively psychiatric disorders. Results indicate that there are cases in which individuals who are diagnosed with psyhiatric disorders in a certain period do not show these symptoms during their hikikomori period. In other words, hikikomori comprises of various conditions, and while it may externally appear to be a certain diagnosis, the reality is much more complex. Therefore, interventions for hikikomori demand a multifaceted approach.
少なくとも構造化面接[structured diagnostic interview]で判断しても,まったく精神科的な問題が診断されない「ひきこもり」が存在することは確認されたといえるだろう。一方で他の時期に精神医学的診断がつくものの,ひきこもりの時期にはそれがない,という場合もありうることが示された。すなわち,「ひきこもり」は様々な状態を包括しており,現れている現象としては似ていても,その内容は複雑であり,多面的なアプローチを要すると考えられる。

Taken from the Regional Epidemiological Investigation, "Hikikomori Diagnosis"
地域疫学調査で把握された「ひきこもり」例の診断について (PDF, Japanese)